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Barnala was declared district in Nov. 2006 by partitioning the earst while Sangrur district. The topography is plain at an elevation of 228.86 meter above mean sea level. Barnala is a small district both in terms of population and area. It is situated on rail line between Bhatinda and Dhuri on Bathinda-Ambala-Delhi section and also on Ludhiana- Bhatinda road .The district is surrounded by Ludhiana and Moga districts in North, Sangrur district in East, Mansa district in South and Bhatinda district in South- west. Barnala district has only one sub division namely Barnala. There are three blocks, 130 villages and 158 Gram Panchyats.
 
The total geographical area is 141000 ha. Total population of district was 526931 amounting to 2.1% of Punjab state according to 2001 census. The number of women per thousand was 871. The rural population was about 392409, is 74% of total population. The literacy rate was 52 %. Literacy rate of urban population was 60%, where as literacy rate in rural population was 49%. The population density was 376 per square kilometer. As per data collected from villages there were 92014 households in this district. Out of which 27604(30%) were scheduled caste and 7361(8%) were of backward classes. The scheduled caste literacy rate was only 30% out of which 62% male and 38% are female.All the families have housing facility. The housing condition varies with size land holdings. 29604(32%)houses have RCC roofs and 62410 (64%) have roofs made of brick tiles The source of drinking water in villages are taps and submersible pumps. Every village have facility of drinking water. Regarding latrine facilities 27604 (30%) house holds are using flush type and 55208 (60%) are using bore-hole latrine within their houses. The remaining 9201(10%) households were using public latrines. 206 kilometer internal roads in the villages are made of bricks with uneven surface need to be made of concrete.615 Km. approach roads also require repairs. In addition to this 255 Km. additional connecting roads are required to be made so that farmers can approach easily. All villages got electrified but supply of electricity is poor in kharif season due to higher demand for paddy crop. The supply remains 4-6 hours with lot of tripping and under voltage. There are 91 self help groups in the district. Most of the groups are non-functioning. With the efforts of extension staff through ATMA scheme groups are being activated with motivation. All most all the villages have primary/upper primary schools. Enrollment of boys 32331 is higher than girls 28641. The attendance of boys is 82% as compared to girls 91%. Among Scheduled caste students boys are 7135 and 6580 girls in upper primary/Senior. Secondary schools.