Patiala, situated in the southeastern parts, is one of twenty districts of the Punjab State. After Independence Patiala became the Capital of PEPSU and in 1956 it got merged into the State of Punjab and in 1992 newly formed district of Fatehgarh Sahib got separated from it. Afterwards newly formed SAS Nagar district also got separated from and now at present there are 4 tehsils, 8 blocks and 941 villages with geographical area of 3.32 thousand hectares, out of which 2.68 Lacs hectares are cultivable.It is surrounded by the districts of Fatehgarh Sahib and Mohali (SAS Nagar) in the north, Sangrur district in the west, Ambala and Kurukshetra districts of neighboring states of Haryana in the east and Kaithal district of Haryana in the south.

The geographical center of the district roughly coincides with Patiala City where the Head Quarters of the district is located.